# Alterations in 72-EDO

The following table shows the alterations in the 72-tone equal-temperament system (72-EDO, twelfth-tone system, Ekmelic system) up to the five-quarters-tone, i.e. 15 twelfth-tone degrees.

- arrow – Arrow notation
- Arrow after Gould (U+E27A, U+E27B) for quarter-tones, half arrow (hook) after Ezra Sims (U+E2A4, U+E2A1) for sixth-tones, Wilson plus/minus (U+E47B, U+E47C) 2 for twelfth-tones, and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264). All symbols are placed either alone or a standard symbol is combined with one of the other symbols.
- rhm – Richter Herf / Maedel notation
- 3 × 2 arrow symbols after Franz Richter Herf and Rolf Maedel (U+F600 - U+F605)
for the degrees within the semitone,
and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264).
They are placed like arrow.
The arrow symbols were originally placed separately above the notes;
see Notation.
But this is not supported by Ekmelily and ekmelib.

Note: The arrow symbols are defined as “Optional glyphs” in the Ekmelos Font since they are not included in SMuFL. - sims – Sims notation
- 3 × 2 arrow symbols after Ezra Sims (U+E2A0 - U+E2A5) for the degrees within the semitone, and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264). They are placed like arrow. Also known as Maneri / Sims notation, due to the adoption of the accidentals by Joe Maneri of the Boston Microtonal Society.
- sag – Sagittal notation
- 12 × 2 Spartan Sagittal single-shaft and multi-shaft symbols after George D. Secor and David C. Keenan (U+E302 ... U+E335). This is the "Pure Sagittal notation" in contrast to msag. It uses one distinct symbol for each degree up to the whole tone. For the degrees up to the five-quarters-tone, two symbols are combined.
- msag – Mixed Sagittal notation
- 3 × 2 Spartan Sagittal single-shaft symbols (U+E302 - U+E305, U+E30A, U+E30B) for the degrees within the semitone, standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E262, U+E264), and large double-sharp symbol (U+E47D). They are placed like arrow.
- wys – Wyschnegradsky notation
- 11 × 2 symbols after Ivan Wyschnegradsky (U+E420 - U+E435), and standard double-sharp / flat symbols (U+E263, U+E264). The notation uses one distinct symbol for each degree up to the whole tone. For the degrees up to the five-quarters-tone, two symbols are combined.
- gost – Gould + Stein / Zimmermann notation
- 5 × 2 combined arrow symbols after Gould (U+E270 - U+E279) for
sixth-tones,
fractional sharp symbols and quarter-tone flat symbol after Richard Stein
(U+E282 - U+E284)
and three-quarters-tone flat symbol after Bernd A. Zimmerman (U+E285)
for quarter-tones,
completed with Wilson plus/minus (U+E47B, U+E47C) 2 for
twelfth-tones,
and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264).

Note: The notation uses the narrow shape of the reversed flat (U+E284, U+E285). - bos – Bosanquet commatic notation
- One thru three comma symbols (sloping lines) after Robert H. M. Bosanquet (U+E479, U+E47A) for the degrees within the semitone, and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264). They are placed like arrow.
- fern – Ferneyhough notation
- 3 × 2 combined digit-arrow symbols after Brian Ferneyhough (U+E48A - U+E48F) for third- and quarter-tones, completed with Wilson plus/minus (U+E47B, U+E47C) 2 for twelfth-tones, and standard sharp / flat symbols (U+E260 - U+E264).
- haba – Hába Notation
- 11 + 6 symbols after Alois Hába (U+F660 - U+F670),
and standard double-sharp / flat symbols (U+E263, U+E264).
The notation uses one distinct symbol for each degree ascending
up to the whole tone and descending up to the semitone. For the other
degrees up to the five-quarters-tone, two symbols are combined.

Note: Hába's symbols are defined as “Optional glyphs” in the Ekmelos Font since they are not included in SMuFL.

- ↑abcdIn most of the notation styles like
arrow, rhm, and
sims, the one-quarter-tone and
three-quarters-tone degrees have two distinct, enharmonically equivalent
accidentals.
Therefore, Ekmelily defines two note name suffixes each, e.g.
`qs`

and`saqf`

(English) or`ih`

and`iseh`

(German). However, LilyPond does not support different accidentals for the same alteration. As a provisional solution, the combined note names (e.g.`-saqf`

or`-iseh`

) have slightly differing alterations and are therefore not suitable for transposition and MIDI output. - ↑abcWilson Plus and Minus are variants of the Bosanquet symbols after Ervin M. Wilson. The comma-up symbol has a vertical line resembling a plus sign.