Please, find here tables with alterations and note names in the 72-tone and other equal-temperament systems (EDO) which are supported by Ekmelily and partly by ekmelib. Note: Ekmelily versions prior to 3.0 support only 72-EDO. The tables are also available as CSV and ODS.


The alterations are specified up to the five-quarters-tone, at most, together with the suffixes for the German and English note names, based on LilyPond, and with the accidental symbols for each predefined notation style in Ekmelily. Some of these accidentals, in particular, combinations of several characters, are defined only for the sake of completeness, so that Ekmelily can provide an accidental for each alteration.

The accidental symbols in the tables use the Ekmelos font. Clicking on a symbol displays its SMuFL code point(s) and glyph name(s), and the symbol can be copied to the clipboard.

Note names

Note names (pitch names) are defined for alterations up to the five-quarters-tone, at most, based on LilyPond, For 72-EDO and its subsystems (36, 24, 12), the partial tones and the approximate proportions are specified.

Enharmonically equivalent degrees

In many notation styles like arrow, rhm, and sims, the one-quarter-tone and three-quarters-tone degrees have two distinct, enharmonically equivalent accidentals. Therefore, Ekmelily defines two note name suffixes each, e.g. qs and saqf (English) or ih and iseh (German). However, LilyPond does not support different accidentals for the same alteration. As a provisional solution, the combined note names (e.g. -saqf or -iseh) have slightly differing alterations and are therefore not suitable for the MIDI output.


  • SMuFL – Standard Music Font Layout. Version 1.4, (A specification for music symbols, introduced by Daniel Spreadbury and developed by the W3C Music Notation Community Group,,
  • LilyPond – the GNU music typesetter. Version 2.22 (File "define-note-names.scm" Copyright (C) 2010--2020 Valentin Villenave et al.,
  • Rolf Maedel, Franz Richter Herf: Ekmelische Musik. In: Schriften der Hochschule Mozarteum. No. 4, Katzbichler, München/Salzburg , ISBN 3-87397-473-8.
  • Horst-Peter Hesse: Breaking into a New World of Sound: Reflections on the Ekmelic Music of the Austrian Composer Franz Richter Herf (1920-1989). In: Perspectives of New Music. Vol. 29, No. 1, .
  • George D. Secor, David C. Keenan: Sagittal – A Microtonal Notation System. , (
  • Joe Monzo: Tonalsoft – Encyclopedia of Microtonal Music Theory. (
  • Suzette Mary Battan: Alois Hába's Neue Harmonielehre des diatonischen, chromatischen, Viertel-, Drittel-, Sechstel- und Zwölftel-Tonsystems. University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (Fig. 8. from Alois Hába: Harmonické základy čtvrttónové soustavy, 1922, Fig. 13. from Alois Hába: Neue Harmonielehre, 1925, pub. 1927).
  • Gardner Read: 20th-Century Microtonal Notation. p. 122 (from Brian Ferneyhough: Unity Capsule, 1975).
  • M. Kemal Karaosmanoğlu: A Turkish Makam Music Symbolic Database For Music Information Retrieval: SymbTr. ISMIR (